Summer & Natalma
Jockey Club Derby
Prince of Wales Stakes
All days: 4/20, 4/21, 4/22, 4/23, 4/24, 4/25, 4/26, 4/27, 4/28, 4/28, 4/29, 4/30, 5/01, 5/02
It was a mixed weather day with storm clouds, high winds, and a good track for the 7:30-7:45am session for Kentucky Derby and Oaks contenders, but clear skies and a fast track after the second harrow break at 9am. Trainer Richard Mandella wait for likely Kentucky Derby morning-line favorite Omaha Beach to workout, instead sending him to school in the starting gate and a 1 1/2-mile gallop over a track rated as good.
Kentucky Oaks contender Motion Emotion, with Tyler Baze aboard, went out after the first harrow break at 7:30 and worked a half-mile in :49.80. Liora worked five furlongs in :59.60 with Florent Geroux up after the second harrow break on a track rated fast.
Although no Derby hopefuls put in timed works at Churchill Downs, there was activity on two other fronts. At Palm Beach Downs in Florida, Blue Grass (G2) winner Vekoma worked five furlongs in :59.80 with jockey Javier Castellano up to the satisfaction of trainer George Weaver. Vekoma is scheduled to ship to Louisville Tuesday, the same day Weaver is to arrive.
Also at Palm Beach Downs, Todd Pletcher's duo of Cutting Humor and Spinoff worked on the fast track. Cutting Humor breezed a half-mile in :48 with fractions of :13, :24.80 and out five furlongs in 1:00.80. Pletcher has not confirmed a rider for Cutting Humor. Spinoff, working in company with Last Judgment who is a 3-year-old allowance winner, covered five furlongs in 1:00.60 with splits of :13, :25, :37 and out six furlongs in 1:13.60 and seven-eighths in 1:27.
Roadster works at Santa Anita on 4/26
Also at Santa Anita, likely Kentucky Oaks favorite Bellafina worked five furlongs in 1:01 for trainer Simon Callaghan and Flor de La Mar breezed five furlongs in :59.80 for Baffert.
Kentucky Derby works penciled in for Saturday at Churchill Downs include Omaha Beach, Plus Que Parfait and War of Will with Gray Magician slated to work at San Luis Rey Training Center in California. Oaks hopefuls expected to work Saturday at Churchill Downs are Restless Rider and Chocolate Kisses.
From a Churchill Downs press release:
BY MY STANDARDS – Owner Chester Thomas was on hand Friday morning at Churchill Downs to watch his TwinSpires.com Louisiana Derby (G2) winner By My Standards gallop 1 1/2 miles. Trained by Bret Calhoun, By My Standards has been dubbed the "buzz horse" from many media outlets and handicappers for this year's "Run for the Roses." By My Standards is slated to gallop 1 1/2 miles Saturday and visit the starting gate and, barring inclement weather, breeze Sunday morning at 7:45.0
Calhoun is scheduled to join Darren Rogers and Kevin Kerstein Friday at 6:45 p.m. on "Inside Churchill Downs" to discuss By My Standards and the lead up to the Kentucky Derby. Fans can listen to the one-hour program beginning at 6 p.m. on ESPN 680/105.7 in Louisville or online at www.espnlouisville.com ESPN 680 | WHBE-AM.
CODE OF HONOR – William S. Farish's Code of Honor was on the track at 6:30, galloping a mile and a quarter under exercise rider Brian Duggan for trainer Shug McGaughey. Code of Honor is scheduled to work Sunday with Duggan handling the work. In Code of Honor's most recent work last Saturday at Keeneland (five furlongs in 1:01), jockey John Velazquez was aboard.
Third in the Florida Derby (G1) in his most recent start, Code of Honor will have paddock and gate schooling next week according to McGaughey, who won the 2013 Kentucky Derby with Orb.
COUNTRY HOUSE / TACITUS – Juddmonte Farms' homebred Tacitus and Mrs. J.V. Shields, E.J.M. McFadden Jr. and LNJ Foxwoods' Country House visited the paddock and then galloped 1 1/2 miles. Juan Quintero was aboard Tacitus and Marianne Scherer won on Country House. Trainer Bill Mott, who saddled his first Kentucky Derby starter in 1984, is looking for his first victory in the Run for the Roses.
The Hall of Famer was asked if he thought there was a Derby trophy with his name on it lurking in the future. "I hope to find out within the next 20 years," Mott said with a smile. "If it takes that long, it will still be fine."
IMPROBABLE – The good signals Grade I winner Improbable has been giving off since arriving at Churchill Downs continued Friday as the son of City Zip put in a spirited 1 1/2 mile gallop under regular exercise rider Jose Contreras.
Improbable, the runner-up in the Arkansas Derby (G1) and Rebel Stakes (G2), visited the gate before showing off his form beneath the Twin Spires. "He's looking good, he's focused, going over the track well," said Jimmy Barnes, assistant to trainer Bob Baffert. "He's doing very well in the gate. We're running him fit basically because he had the whole winter off."
Improbable captured the Los Alamitos Futurity (G1) last December to cap off a 3-for-3 juvenile campaign that also featured a victory in the Street Sense Stakes at Churchill Downs. After finishing second by a neck to Long Range Toddy in the first division of the Rebel Stakes on March 16, the chestnut colt owned by WinStar Farm, China Horse Club International, and Starlight Racing was bested by Omaha Beach in the April 13 Arkansas Derby. "Sometimes it takes horses three to four races to be fit," Barnes said. "We're heading in the right direction.
LONG RANGE TODDY – Rebel Stakes (G2) winner Long Range Toddy galloped about 1 1/2 miles Friday for Hall of Fame trainer Steve Asmussen.
MASTER FENCER (JPN) – Katsumi and Yasuyo Yoshizawa's Master Fencer (JPN) – who in eight days could become the first horse bred in Japan to race in the Kentucky Derby Presented by Woodford Reserve (G1) – arrived at Keeneland about 6 p.m. Thursday to continue preparations for the 145th running of the $3 million race at Churchill Downs. Master Fencer came to Keeneland, said shipping agent/manager Mitsuoki Numamoto, to give him a quiet atmosphere in the days following his first international trip. The colt is to leave for Churchill on Monday, when the owners and trainer Koichi Tsunoda are scheduled to arrive in Louisville.
While at Keeneland, Master Fencer is expected to perform only light training. "(Exercise rider Yosuke Kono) wants him to get used to the American circumstances – horses, track and so forth," Numamoto said.
On Friday about 6:45 a.m., Master Fencer and Kono were on Keeneland's 5-furlong all-weather training track and galloped twice around by themselves before jogging about 11/2 times around with a lead pony. "He's surprisingly laid back given the fact he's never traveled abroad before," said Kate Hunter, Japan-based representative for Churchill Downs and the Triple Crown.
OMAHA BEACH – Fox Hill Farm's Omaha Beach visited the starting gate and galloped a mile and a half under Taylor Cambra. Trainer Richard Mandella had considered working Omaha Beach today, but overnight rains left the track sloppy when training began at 5:15 and then good after the first harrow break from 7-7:30.
"I think I will have a better chance (to breeze) tomorrow," Mandella said.
"I called Mike (Smith) and told him not to come in. I have a rider (Julien
Leparoux) lined up for whenever he works."
PLUS QUE PARFAIT – UAE Derby (G2) winner Plus Que Parfait galloped about 1 1/2 miles with exercise rider Tom Molloy aboard Friday morning at Churchill Downs. Trainer Brendan Walsh reported via text that Plus Que Parfait is scheduled to breeze Saturday at 7:30 a.m.
WAR OF WILL – Trainer Mark Casse was on the scene Friday morning to observe Risen Star Stakes (G2) winner War of Will one day before the son of is set to have his final breeze in advance of the first leg of the Triple Crown. With exercise rider Jose Vasquez in the saddle, War of Will provided an eyeful for his Canadian Hall of Fame conditioner, going 1 1/2 miles on a crisp morning. Saturday's planned half-mile work will be the fourth for Gary Barber's colt since finishing ninth in the Twinspires.com Louisiana Derby (G2), a race in which he gave his connections a scare when his hind end gave out shortly after the break.
"Someone asked me today when that happened in the race, what were your thoughts. (When that happened) I forgot about even winning, it didn't really matter," Casse said. "I was just hoping he was fine. To have that scare and to be where we are now I mean, it's amazing."
Casse said he is mulling whether to work War of Will in company or solo Saturday, adding that part of the issue is finding a workmate who can suitably push him. "He's a pretty good work horse. If we put a workmate with him we just let him run by him, just a little confidence builder," Casse said. "But I haven't really decided. It's not easy finding horses to work with him. If we do put him in company, it will be one of Gary Barber's horses just to give him some confidence."
WIN WIN WIN – Live Oak Plantation's Win Win Win, who arrived from his Maryland base Thursday morning, put in his first exercise over the Churchill Downs surface Friday morning by galloping a mile and a half under exercise rider Melanie Williams. "The track was a little heavy after all the rain," said Williams, who never had been to Churchill Downs until her arrival Thursday. "I like the special training time (for Derby and Oaks horses) and he handled himself well. He likes to show off; he is very athletic."
Trainer Mike Trombetta is scheduled to be in Louisville Saturday. Win Win Win is scheduled to work Sunday with jockey Julian Pimentel aboard.
SIGNALMAN (No. 22) – Kentucky Jockey Club (G2) winner and Blue Grass (G2) third Signalman was out for a gallop with regular exercise rider Danny Ramsey. The colt – who races for the partnership of Tommie M. Lewis, Steve Crabtree, Dean Demaree, David Bernsen, Jim Chambers and Magdalena Racing – is expected to work on Saturday morning. "Everybody was fine after galloping this morning," said Greg Geier, an assistant to trainer Kenny McPeek.
If Signalman rises to reach one of the 20 spots in the Derby starting gate, Brian Hernandez Jr. is expected to ride. "He's a nose away from being in the Derby," Hernandez said Friday morning. "Every other year, 38 points would have been enough to get in, but not this year."
Hernandez said he approaches the Derby "just like any other race. You go out there and give your horse the cleanest trip you can."
SUENO (No. 23) – Silverton Hill's Sueno galloped a mile and a half under Juan Diaz for trainer Keith Desormeaux. Sueno, who would need three defections from horses under consideration for the Derby to make the field, is scheduled to work Saturday.
SHAPING UP: THE KENTUCKY DERBY – Likely starters in the 145th running of the $3 million Kentucky Derby presented by Woodford Reserve (G1) to be run for 3-year-olds at 1 1/4 miles on Saturday, May 4: By My Standards (jockey Gabriel Saez), Code of Honor (John Velazquez), Country House (Flavien Prat), Cutting Humor (undecided), Game Winner (Joel Rosario), Gray Magician (undecided), Haikal (Rajiv Maragh), Improbable (Irad Ortiz Jr.), Long Range Toddy (Jon Court), Master Fencer (JPN) (Julien Leparoux), Maximum Security (Luis Saez), Omaha Beach (Mike Smith), Plus Que Parfait (Ricardo Santana Jr.), Roadster (Florent Geroux), Spinoff (Manny Franco), Tacitus (Jose Ortiz), Tax (Junior Alvarado), Vekoma (Javier Castellano), War of Will (Tyler Gaffalione), Win Win Win (Julian Pimentel).
Next up in order of preference: Bodexpress (undecided), Signalman (Brian Hernandez Jr.), Sueno (undecided) and Bourbon War (undecided).
PAST PERFORMANCES AND STAKES HISTORY
KENTUCKY OAKS UPDATE
CHAMPAGNE ANYONE – Six Column Stables and Randy Bloch's Champagne Anyone galloped a mile and three-eighths under Kara Lee for trainer Ian Wilkes. Winner of the Gulfstream Park Oaks (G2) in her most recent start, Champagne Anyone has had three local works since that victory and is scheduled for her final Oaks work this weekend.
CHOCOLATE KISSES – Debbie Oxley's Honeybee Stakes (G3) winner Chocolate Kisses galloped about 1 1/2 miles Friday at Churchill Downs with exercise rider Kim Carroll aboard for trainer Mark Casse. Chocolate Kisses is slated to work Saturday in what will be her first move since finishing sixth in the Ashland Stakes (G1) at Keeneland on April 6. Casse put the blame partially on himself for the filly's effort that day, saying he gave instructions to have her closer to the pace than she prefers.
"I kind of maybe messed that up," Casse said. "The track was playing so biased that first week at Keeneland that I told (jockey) Tyler (Gaffalione) to keep her close to the pace and that didn't work. So she'll drop back to the back (in the Oaks) and she'll gallop along. If speed collapses, she'll come running. If it doesn't, she won't."
LADY APPLE – Phoenix Thoroughbred III and KatieRich Stables' Fantasy Stakes (G3) winner Lady Apple galloped about 1 3/8 miles during the exclusive training window for Derby and Oaks horses at 7:30 a.m. Friday with exercise rider Juan Vargas aboard.
LIORA – Trainer Wayne Catalano hit a personal trifecta Friday morning. He got the weather he wanted, the track conditions he was hoping for and – most important – he saw every positive indicator he could have asked from his Kentucky Oaks contender Liora in her final serious move before the 1 1/8-mile test. With the sun showing itself after some dreary conditions earlier in the morning, Coffee Pot Stables' graded stakes winner Liora took to the track shortly after 9 o'clock with jockey Florent Geroux in the irons and turned in a nifty five-furlong workout in :59.60. After breaking off in eager fashion, the dark bay daughter of Candy Ride (ARG) clocked splits of :12, :23.60 and :35.20 before galloping out six furlongs in 1:13.20.
As he bounded out of the clockers stand and hustled back the barn, Catalano nearly matched his charge's energy in declaring the filly's final piece of serious work a success. "We got everything we wanted actually, we've been blessed," Catalano said. "The sun is shining, the horses worked good, what more could you want? Liora is doing very well right now. Obviously Flo is a very good jockey and he's got the hands which is the reason why I had him substitute for (regular rider) Channing (Hill) to work her."
Catalano worked Liora in blinkers Friday in an attempt to get her focus on track following a pair of runner-up efforts in the Feb. 16 Rachel Alexandra Stakes (G2) and March 23 Twinspires.com Fair Grounds Oaks Added Geroux, "She was way more focused today. She puts way more into her works. She's got a win over the track – not with me on her – but I've always liked her. The blinkers definitely helped because she has a tendency of wandering around a bit at the end. Not getting tired, but just losing her focus a bit."
Though Liora is still seeking her first victory this season, she has a couple intangibles in her pocket that could propel her to an Oaks triumph. Both of her career wins have come over the Churchill Downs main track including her gate-to-wire victory in the Golden Rod Stakes (G2) last November where she defeated Grade I winner Restless Rider.
That Golden Rod triumph came over a sealed, sloppy track. Hence, Catalano isn't too concerned about what the weatherman's prediction is for Oaks Day. "She might be the only horse going into the Oaks that's won two races at Churchill Downs," Catalano said. "She's been over it, she's won over it. You can see today, she did that work pretty easy. And one thing about her is, she doesn't care (what the track conditions are). She won over a sloppy track, she's been in it a few times. But we'd like to have good weather for everybody."
Catalano said Liora would have a walk day Saturday.
MOTION EMOTION – Mark DeDomenico's Motion Emotion worked a half-mile in :49.80 over a track rated as good with Tyler Baze aboard for trainer Tom Van Berg. Working on her own, Motion Emotion recorded fractions of :12.20, :24.60 and out five furlongs in 1:03. "It was absolutely beautiful," said Baze, who was aboard the Fantasy runner-up (G3) for the first time. "She made a favorable impression."
Van Berg gave a thumbs up on the morning after Motion Emotion cooled out. "Tyler says we're in good shape," said Van Berg, who will give a leg up to Mike Smith in the Oaks.
Motion Emotion, who was stabled here last fall, is scheduled for gate and paddock schooling next week.
OUT FOR A SPIN – Commonwealth Stables' Ashland (G1) winner Out for a Spin had a scheduled walk day for trainer Dallas Stewart.
RESTLESS RIDER – Fern Circle Stables and Three Chimneys Farm's Ashland Stakes (G1) runner-up Restless Rider was out for a light gallop Friday morning during the 7:30 a.m. session set aside for Derby and Oaks horses. Regular exercise rider Danny Ramsey was up for trainer Kenny McPeek. The filly, who is seventh on the Oaks points leaderboard, is to have Brian Hernandez Jr. riding next week. Last year, she won the Alcibiades (G1) at Keeneland, then closed out her 2-year-old season with second-place finishes at Churchill Downs in the Breeders' Cup Juvenile Fillies (G1) and the Golden Rod Stakes (G2).
"The Ashland did her a world of good," Hernandez said Friday. "Kenny has had a great game plan for her. That was her only race since November. Bellafina will be the one to beat, but we beat her last year in the Breeders' Cup (second vs. fourth), and Jaywalk, we beat her in the Ashland (second vs. third)."
SERENGETI EMPRESS – Following a scare in the March 23 Fair Grounds Oaks (G2) in New Orleans, owner Joel Politi's filly continues to rebound from the bleeding episode as she trains toward the May 3 Kentucky Oaks (G1). She was on the Churchill Downs track Friday morning with her regular exercise rider, Francisco Herrera. "We had a typical day of training by our standards, of what we do with our horses," trainer Tom Amoss said afterward at the barn. "She did a full mile of jogging, then galloped for a mile-and-a-half.
"Tomorrow," Amoss continued, "the only variation might be that we might go to the paddock and practice a little bit. And at some point, this week, we'll do some gate practice as well."
Amoss, along with many others, is awaiting the arrival of likely Oaks favorite Bellafina, who is expected to check into Simon Callaghan's barn at Churchill Downs on Monday. The filly, fourth in the Breeders' Cup Juvenile Fillies (G1) comes into the Oaks on a three-race win streak, including a 61/4-length victory in the Santa Anita Oaks (G1) in her most recent start.
"I'm anxious to see Bellafina, because she's the horse to beat," Amoss said. "There's no question that it's her and the rest of the field. She's the only one who's held her form from her 2-year-old year, whether it's mine or John Servis' horse (Jaywalk, third in the Ashland (G1) at Keeneland)."
STREET BAND – Larry Jones, Cindy Jones and Ray Francis' Street Band galloped a mile under exercise rider Jorge Nava over a track rated as good. Winner of the Fair Grounds Oaks (G2) in her most start for trainer Larry Jones, Street Band is scheduled to work Sunday and prior to that have a paddock schooling session Saturday night.
DUNBAR ROAD (No. 16) – Peter Brant's filly continues to train well for a possible run in the May 3 Kentucky Oaks (G1). Trainer Chad Brown had her on the track Friday for a gallop under exercise rider Kriss Bon. "She's probably going to gallop tomorrow (Saturday)," said Brown, who was runner-up last year in the Kentucky Derby to eventual Triple Crown champion Justify with Good Magic. "Then we'll wait and see."
Dunbar Road, who finished second as the favorite in the Gulfstream Park Oaks (G2) in just her second career start, is 16th on the Kentucky Oaks points leaderboard, but only the top 14 will enter the starting gate. Jose Ortiz is expected to ride her if she makes it into the Oaks.
For Brown, it's a year of late-blooming colts. "I have some late-developing horses that look promising," he said. "Not every horse can make the Derby. We have several good prospects in the barn."
SHAPING UP: THE LONGINES KENTUCKY OAKS – Likely starters in the 145th running of the $1.25 million Longines Kentucky Oaks (G1) to be run for 3-year-old fillies at 1 1/8 miles on Friday, May 3: Bellafina (jockey Flavien Prat), Champagne Anyone (Chris Landeros), Chocolate Kisses (Julien Leparoux), Flor de la Mar (Joel Rosario), Jaywalk (Javier Castellano), Jeltrin (Luis Saez), Lady Apple (Ricardo Santana Jr.), Liora (Channing Hill), Motion Emotion (Mike Smith), Out for a Spin (Irad Ortiz Jr.), Positive Spirit (Manny Franco), Restless Rider (Brian Hernandez Jr.), Serengeti Empress (Undecided), Street Band (Sophie Doyle).
Next up in order of preference: Cookie Dough (Jeffrey Sanchez) and Dunbar Road (Jose Ortiz).
DERBY/OAKS KNOWN ARRIVAL SCHEDULE
EARLY LOOK AT POSSIBLE FIELDS FOR KENTUCKY DERBY WEEK STAKES
$125,000 UNBRIDLED SIDNEY (Entries taken Saturday, April 27, race Thursday May 2) – Probable: Luvin Bullies (Mac Robertson), Nootka Sound (Wesley Ward) and Pretty Greeley (John Ortiz). Possible: Morticia (Rusty Arnold).
$500,000 LA TROIENNE (G1) (Entries taken Monday, April 29, race Friday, May 3) – Probable: Blue Prize (ARG) (Ignacio Correas IV), Divine Miss Grey (Danny Gargan), Heavenhasmynikki (Bob Hess Jr.), Mopotism (Doug O'Neill), Secret Spice (Richard Baltas) and She's a Julie (Steve Asmussen).
$400,000 ALYSHEBA (G2) (Entries taken Monday, April 29, race Friday, May 3) – Probable: Bandua (Jack Sisterson), Bourbon Resolution (Ian Wilkes), Instilled Regard (Chad Brown), McKinzie (Bob Baffert), Pavel (Doug O'Neill), Prime Attraction (Jim Cassidy), Silver Dust (Bret Calhoun) and Tom's d'Etat (Al Stall Jr.).
$250,000 EDGEWOOD (G3) (Entries taken Monday, April 29, race Friday, May 3) – Probable: Cambier Parc (Chad Brown), Concrete Rose (Rusty Arnold), Newspaperofrecord (IRE) (Chad Brown) and Winter Sunset (Wayne Catalano).
$250,000 EIGHT BELLES (G2) (Entries taken Monday, April 29, race Friday, May 3) – Probable: Bell's the One (Neil Pessin), Im Evin Im Leavin (Greg Tracy), Mother Mother (Bob Baffert), Queen of Beas (Jorge Abreu) and Take Charge Angel (Ben Colebrook).
$250,000 TWIN SPIRES TURF SPRINT (G2) (Entries taken Monday, April 29, race Friday, May 3) – Probable: Angaston (Lon Wiggins), Bound for Nowhere (Wesley Ward), Eddie Haskell (Mark Glatt), Extravagant Kid (Brendan Walsh), Mr. Crow (Ben Colebrook), Will Call (Brad Cox) and World of Trouble (Jason Servis).
$1 MILLION OLD FORESTER TURF CLASSIC (G1) (Entries taken Tuesday, April 30, race Saturday, May 4) – Probable: Breaking the Rules (Shug McGaughey), Bricks and Mortar (Chad Brown), March to the Arch (Mark Casse), Markitoff (Mike Maker), Multiplier (Bill Mott), Raging Bull (FR) (Brown) and Ticonderoga (Brown).
$500,000 CHURCHILL DOWNS (G1) (Entries taken Tuesday, April 30, race Saturday, May 4) – Probable: Bobby's Wicked One (Al Stall Jr.), Do Share (Mike Maker), Limousine Liberal (Ben Colebrook), Promises Fulfilled (Dale Romans), Warrior's Club (D. Wayne Lukas) and Whitmore (Ron Moquett).
$500,000 HUMANA DISTAFF (G1) (Entries taken Tuesday, April 30, race Saturday, May 4) – Probable: Amy's Challenge (Mac Robertson), Marley's Freedom (Bob Baffert), Shamrock Rose (Mark Casse) and Talk Veuve to Me (Rodolphe Brisset).
$400,000 AMERICAN TURF (G2) (Entries taken Tuesday, April 30, race Saturday, May 4) – Probable: A Thread of Blue (Kiaran McLaughlin), Avie's Flatter (Josie Carroll), Casa Creed (Bill Mott), Digital Age (IRE) (Chad Brown), Forever Mo (Antonio Sano), Henley's Joy (Mike Maker), Louder Than Bombs (David Fawkes), Marquee Prince (Brad Cox), Seismic Wave (Mott) and Weekly Call (Vickie Foley).
$400,000 LONGINES DISTAFF TURF MILE (G2) (Entries taken Tuesday, April 30, race Saturday, May 4) – Probable: Beau Recall (IRE) (Brad Cox), Capla Temptress (IRE) (Bill Mott), Daddy Is a Legend (George Weaver), Environs (GB) (Chad Brown), Got Stormy (Mark Casse), Precieuse (IRE) (Brown), Raven's Lady (GB) (James Cassidy), Take These Chains (Matt Hogan) and Valedictorian (Kelly Breen).
$400,000 PAT DAY MILE (G3) (Entries taken Tuesday, April 30, race Saturday, May 4) – Probable: Dream Maker (Mark Casse), Frolic More (Dallas Stewart), Global Campaign (Stan Hough), Great Success (Gustavo Delgado), High Crime (Darrin Miller), Hog Creek Hustle (Vickie Foley), Lexitonian (Jack Sisterson), Manny Wah (Wayne Catalano) and Mr. Money (Bret Calhoun).